[16][a], The Hundingstellung (Hunding Position) was to run from Péronne to Etain, north-east of Verdun behind the Champagne battlefields of 1915. 3. Instead of a long period of artillery registration (firing ranging shots before the attack) and wire-cutting, which would have warned the German defence that an assault was being prepared, massed artillery-fire did not begin until the infantry–tank advance began on 20 November, using unregistered (predicted) fire. The conduct of the Anglo-French pursuit conformed to this model. Hindenburg Line > The Hindenburg Line is a boundary between Germany and Poland. – Poland & Germany. [96], Labour was transferred to work on the Hundingstellung from La Fère to Rethel and 20 fortress labour battalions were sent to work on the forward positions on the Aisne front on 23 February. Fighting on the Fourth Army front, for the remaining outpost villages, went on until the end of April. The costly battles at Verdun and the Somme had been much more demanding on German divisions and they had to be relieved after only a few days in the front line, lasting about 14 days on the Somme. Hindenburg Line is the boundary line between which two Countries? Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. [32], During periods of fine weather in October 1916, British reconnaissance flights had reported new defences being built far behind the Somme front; on 9 November, reconnaissance aircraft found a new line of defences from Bourlon Wood to Quéant, Bullecourt, the river Sensée and Héninel, to the German third line near Arras. On the left flank the country beyond Riegel II Stellung was open and on the right the Germans made little effort to hold the ground west of Riegel III Stellung, the ground inclining slightly to the north-east towards Bullecourt, 9 mi (14 km) away, with most of the rivers flowing in the direction of the British advance. Hindenburg line represents the line to which Germans retreated during First World War, representing boundary between Poland and Germany. Several units were late and attacked on unfamiliar ground, with 2,313 casualties against 1,010 Australian losses. The 58th Division relieved the Australians and British attacks on 13 May failed. (IWM Q 1985), Illustration of the German retirement to the, Unrestricted U-boat warfare and strategic bombing, The withdrawal to the last part of the line was made under the pressure of the. The German armies made an efficient withdrawal, although the destruction accompanying Unternehmen Alberich led a considerable amount of indiscipline. A Booby-trap exploded in Bapaume town hall on 25 March, killing Australian troops and two French Deputies; French civilians were left behind at Bouvincourt, Vraignes and Tincourt on 26 March and Villers Faucon, Saulcourt and Guyencourt were lost on 27 March, to attacks by British cavalry and armoured cars. Greater output of explosives, ammunition and weapons by German industry against the Allied Materialschlacht (battle of equipment) was attempted in the Hindenburg Programme of August 1916. [83][84], Falls rejected claims that British methods were predictable, noting that attacks had been made at dawn, noon, afternoon and at night. It was drawn up in 1896 by Sir Mortimer Durand. In 1916, the Battle of Verdun and the Battle of the Somme left the German western armies (Westheer) exhausted and on the Eastern Front, the Brusilov Offensive had inflicted huge losses on the Austro-Hungarian armies and forced the Germans to take over more of the front. C) Hindenburg line. Two schools of thought emerged over the winter; the principal authors of the new training manual, Colonel Max Bauer and Captain Hermann Geyer of the General Staff, wanting front garrisons to have discretion to move forwards, sideways and to retire. 4. A bridge over the canal near Péronne was built by surveying the ground on the night of 15 March, towing pontoons up river the next night, building beginning at dawn on 17 March and the 60 ft (18 m) pontoon being ready by noon. Breaking the Hindenburg Line, Australian War Memorial, local history of Hindenburg Line in Arras sector, Hindenburg Line Museum, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hindenburg_Line&oldid=995550407, Military operations of World War I involving Germany, Military operations of World War I involving the United Kingdom, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 17:36. Supply difficulties had also begun to increase on the Third Army and Fourth Army fronts before the German withdrawals. On 29 January, Ludendorff ruled that a withdrawal could not be ordered on political as well as military grounds, then on 31 January, discussed withdrawal with Kuhl, while the 1st and 2nd Army commanders on the Somme front opposed a retirement. The artillery wireless organisation broke down at times, due to delays in setting up ground stations, which led to missed opportunities for the direction of artillery fire from the air. The Germans retreated to this … Readmore [62], The British advance in the Fourth Army area reached the Somme rapidly from 17 to 20 March, with a continuous pursuit by vanguards and the main body moving forward by bounds between lines of resistance, up to the Somme river and Canal du Nord, which ran north-to-south from Offoy to Péronne, then paused while the river was bridged, with a priority of light bridges for infantry first, pontoon or trestle bridges for wagons and field artillery and then heavy bridges for mechanical transport and heavy artillery. [20], The German army was far from defeat but in 1916 had been forced back on the Somme and at Verdun, as had the Austro-Hungarian army in southern Russia. The Fifth Army divisions advanced with patrols until they met German resistance, then prepared deliberate attacks, some of which were forestalled by German withdrawals, which by 26 February, apart from some small detachments, had abandoned the ground west of the Riegel I Stellung. (a) Hindenburg line (b) Curzon line (c) Durand line (d) Mannerheim line 262. Three divisions attacked after a three-day artillery bombardment using the new fuze 106. At the Chantilly Conference of November 1916 the Allies agreed to mount another general offensive. [98][99], Another British attack at Bullecourt was planned after the failure of 11 April but postponed several times until the Third Army further north, had reached the river Sensée and there had been time for a thorough artillery preparation. Omissions? 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