Plants perceive and respond adaptively to abiotic stress imposed by salt, cold, drought and wounding and the adaptive process is controlled mainly by the phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA), which acts as an endogenous messenger in the regulation of the plant's water status. Role of G Protein Signaling Components in Plant Stress Management ... G protein components have also been found to play a regulatory role in ethylene-mediated hypoxia signaling.

2 ABA is generated as a signal during a plant's life cycle to control seed germination and developmental processes.

Molecular Plant Abiotic Stress: Biology and Biotechnology is an extensive investigation of the various forms of abiotic stresses encountered in plants, and susceptibility or tolerance mechanisms found in different plant species.

Preventing such losses is particularly important in the face of a rapidly expanding world population that exerts an immense pressure on human populations to produce more food and feed.

Ethylene triggers the antioxidative defense system of plants which ultimately results in the reduction of oxidative stress, accompanied by recovery in the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of plants.

The use of bioeffectors, formally known as plant biostimulants, has become common practice in agriculture and provides a number of benefits in stimulating growth and protecting against stress.

2014a,b). Recent research reviewed here has revealed mechanistic new insights into the mode of action of these hormones in plant abiotic stress tolerance.

Ethylene, an important plant growth regulator, plays a crucial role in ameliorating the harmful effects of these abiotic stress conditions. A biostimulant is loosely defined as an organic material and/or microorganism that is applied to enhance nutrient uptake, stimulate growth, enhance stress tolerance or crop quality.

Ethylene is a simple gaseous hormone which plays multiple roles in regulation of plant growth and development, and also serves as a key modulator between plant response to environmental stresses and normal growth (Abeles et al., 1992).Under salinity and some other stresses, ethylene production is quickly stimulated (Morgan and Drew, 1997). Ethylene Biosynthesis and Salinity Stress. Abiotic stress factors such as salinity, heat, cold, drought, and flooding cause widespread crop losses throughout the world. Molecular Plant Abiotic Stress: Biology and Biotechnology is an extensive investigation of the various forms of abiotic stresses encountered in plants, and susceptibility or tolerance mechanisms found in different plant species. Although ABA is the most studied stress-responsive hormone, the individual role of ethylene, CKs, BRs, and auxins during environmental stress is emerging, as is the impact of their mutual cross-talk (Fujita et al., 2011; Arc et al., 2013; Fahad et al., 2015; Wani et al., 2016). In stress conditions like drought, extreme temperature, and high salinity, content in plants increases considerably, inspiring stress-tolerance effects that help plants, adapt, and survive under these stressful situations ( Ng et …

The present review provides updated information about the protective roles of ethylene in plants. Abiotic stress tolerance in plants via endophytes. It discusses how these abiotic stresses can be managed in a cost-effective and eco-friendly way by utilising… The DREB1 and DREB2 regulons can thus be used to improve the tolerance of various kinds of agriculturally important crop plants to drought, high-salinity, and freezing stresses by gene transfer.